Saraswati-Shindhu-Ganges (Baidik/Vedic) Civilization
Table of royal genealogy of Ancient India prior to the Bharat War (1482/1452 BC)
Chronology of Ancient Indian History
or 1452 BCE: The Bharat War, fought 8 or 9 generations of spiritual
teachers-each generation said to have been of 30 years-before the 36th
year of Buddha’s life when his ministry started.
0r 1415 BCE: The death of Krishna, marking the Kolijug which started
36 years after the Bharat war and synchronizing with the accession of
Parikshit, the grand nephew of Judhishthir, to the throne of Hastinapur
BCE: The death of Mahabir at the age of 72
BCE: The parinirban (death) of Buddha
at the age of 80, 218 years before the accession of Ashok Maurya
BCE: The accession of Ashok. His personal name was Priyadarsin.
BCE: The end of Ashok’s reign, leading to disintegration of his
empire-his sons and grandsons (Sasrath and Samprati) ruling independently
in different parts of the country. Even the supposed last Maurya
Brihadrath-who met his death at the hands of his commander Pushyamitra
Sunga-was one of Ashok’s immediate or at least proximate successors.
BCE: The approximate epoch of grammarian Panini’s Ashtadhyayi. This
book speaks of its author’s native province Gandhara as an independent
BCE: The Malab or the Krita era, founded perhaps by a Malab hero named
BCE: The Saka era brought Sind from Iran by the two Saka families, the
Kshaharatas and the Kardamakas, soon after the conquests to the west of
the Indus by the first Achaemmenid emperor Cyrus(558-530 BCE). They all
call themselves Satrapas (provincial governors) without mentioning
BCE: The accession of the 23rd Satbahana king, Gautamaputra Satakarni
who in his 18th regnal year defeated Rishabhadatta, the viceroy of the
Kshaharata ruler Nahapana and brought an end to the Kshaharata dynasty.
BCE: The epoch of the Nanaghat Inscription and the major part of the
political treatise Kautilya’s Arthasastra whose religious data
those of the epigraph resemble.
BCE: A period of uncertainty for 75 years starts in Magadh following
the end of the Satabahanas. During the later part of this period of
uncertainty the Lichchabi clan appear to have controlled that province.
BCE: The crossing of the Indus by Alexander on April 13, early
morning. The Naga king Chandramsa (known as Xandrames to the Greeks)
reigned over the Indian interior about the Ganges and waited beyond the
Ganges to block Alexander’s advance further to the Indian interior.
BCE: The accession of Chandragupta
I (known to the Greeks as Sandrocottus), founding the dynasty of the
Imperial Guptas at Pataliputra (Gk Palibothra) and initiating the Gupta
era in the year of his accession which seems to have tallied with his
marriage to the Lichchabi princess Kumardebi.
BCE: Seleucas Nicator, successor of Alexander in the East, crossed the
Indus but stopped by Chandragupta I, pushed back, chased up the right bank
of the river and defeated. The invading Greeks (army) were called Bahlikas
by Chandragupta I in the inscription he set up in the wake of his
victory-the famous Muherauli Pillar Inscription of
king ‘Chandra’, topped by the emblem of Garur (eagle) and
consecrated to the god Bishnu. Seleucas established amity with the Indian
monarch, Chandragupta I.
BCE: The arrival of Megasthenes,
the ambassador of Seleucas, at the court of Chandragupta I, for a long
stay, during which he gathered material for his Indica.
BCE: The accession of Samudragupta (known to the Greeks as
Amitrachates, Sanskrit Amitrachchhetta, meaning ‘Mower of enemies’,
akin to the title given to Samudragupta in later Gupta inscriptions, Sarbarajochchhetta,
‘Mower of all Kings’). Samudragupta, though a Baishnabite, was a great
patron of art, literature and philosophy in general and encouraged
280 BCE: The probable time of the final recension of the Bhagabad Gita.
BCE: Death if Samudragupta. His son Chandragupta II, syled
Bikramaditya, comes to the throne. He is known as the destroyer of the
BCE: The reign of Kumaragupta I, son of Chandragupta II.
BCE: The reign of Skandagupta, son of Kumaragupta I, also styled
Bikramaditya. During Skandagupta’s reign and even a little earlier- in
the last part of Kumaragupta’s-tribals from beyond the Indus irrupted
into the Gupta empire. In the inscriptions on the Junagarh rock they are
called by the general name Mlechcha.
BCE: A powerful chief named Toramana who had made Kashmir his seat
invaded Malab state which was then under the Gupta king Bhanugupta.
BCE: Toramana dies. His son Mihirakul ruled Malab for 15 years.
BCE: A Malab chief named
Yasodharman defeats Mihirakul and liberates Malab.
100 BCE: A Gupta emperor named Narasimhagupta vanquished the second attempt to rise of Mihirakul.
Source: KD Sethna: Ancient India in a New Light
Bangla in Antquity
Arabian Invasion (Muhammad bin Quasim:712 AD)
Having tried a naval invasion of India through Thana, Broach and Debal from 634 to 637 AD, the Arabs tried the land route on the north-west during 650-711 AD. But the Indian princess of Kabul and Zabul protected the Khyber Pass, defeated the invading Arabian bands few times and forced them to sign non-agression treaties. The Jats of Kikan blocked the Bolan Pass. “ At the end of 38 Hijri, writes Al Biladuri in his Futuh-ul-Buldan, or the beginning of 39 Hijri (659 AD) in the Khilafat of Ali, Harras...went with sanction of the Khalif to the same frontier. He and those whoe were with him, saving a few, were slain in the land of Kikan in the year 42 Hijri (662 AD). In the year44 Hijri (664 AD) and in the days of Khalif Muabia, Muhallab made war on the same frontier...The enemy opposed him and killed him and his followers ...Muabia sent Abdullah..to the frontier of Hind (India). He fought in Kikan and captured booty...He stayed near the Khalif for some time and then returned to Kikan, when the Turks (Indians) called their forces together and slew him”
Seeing not much of a luck via the Khyber Pass, the Arabs then tried a third land route, via Markan. Al Biladuri continues: “In the reign of the same Muabia, chief Ziyad appointed Sinan....He proceeded to the frontier and having subdued Markan and its cities by force, he stayed there....Ziyad then appointed Rashid ...He proceeded to Markan but he was slain fighting against the Meds (Indians)...Abbad, son of Ziyad then made war on the frontier of Hind by the way of Seistan. He fought the inhabitants....but many Musulmans perished...Ziyad next appointed Al Manzar. Sinan had taken it but its inhabitants had been guilty of defection....He(Al Manzar) died there...When Hajjaj was governor of Iraq, Said ..was appointed to Markan and its frontiers. He was opposed and slain there. Hajjaj then appointed Mujja...to the frontier...Mujja died in Markan after being there a year...Then Hajjaj sent Ubaidullah...against Debal. Ubaidullah being killed, Hajjaj wrote to Budail...directing him to proceed to Debal ...the enemy surrounded and killed him. Afterwards, Hajjaj during the Khalifat of Walid, appointed Muhammad, son of Quasim to command on the Sindhian frontier”. That was in 712 AD.
Now if we compare this chronicle of Arabian repeated invasions to India with their invasions to other parts of the world we can find out that the Indians resistance to the Arabian invaders was much stronger than the other nations of the world. Within eight years of Muhammad’s death the Arabs conquered Persia, Syria and Egypt. By 650 AD, they advanced up to the Oxus and the Hindu Kush. Between 640 and 709 AD the Arabs occupied the whole of North Africa and converted them into Islam . They conquered Spain in 711 AD. But it took them 70 long years to secure their first foothold on the soil of India.
“Muhammad took the fort and stayed there for two or three days. He put six thousand fighting men, who were in the fort, to the sword and shot some (more) with arrows. The other dependent were taken prisoner with their wives and children. When the number of prisoners was calculated, it was found to amount to thirty thousand persons amongst whom thirty were the daughters of the chiefs, and one of them was Rai Dahir’s sister’s daughter whose name was Jaisiya. They were sent to Hajjaj. The head of Dahir and the fifth part of prisoners were forwarded in charge of K’ab, son of Maharak”-- recounts the Chachanama, the most famous Muslim history of the Arab conquest of Sindh, about Muhammad Bin Quasim’s invasion of India.
“ When the plunder and the prisoners of war were brought before Muhammad bin Quasim and inquiries were made about every captive, it was found that Ladi, the wife of Dahir, was in the fort with two daughters of his by other wives. Veils were put on their faces and they were delivered to a servant to keep them apart. One fifth of all the prisoners were chosen and set aside: they were counted as amounting to twenty thousand in number, and the rest were given to the soldiers. He sat on the seat of cruelty, and put all those who had fought to the sword. It is said that about six thousand fighting men were slain, but according to some, sixteen thousand were killed”-- Records the Chachanama after the fall of Brahnamabad.
After ‘peace’ had thus been resorted, the conqueror took the next step. The Chachanama records: “.......... Muhammad bin Quasim fixed a tax upon all subjects according to the laws of the prophet. Those who embraced Islam were exempted from slavery, the tribute and poll-tax, and from those who did not chase their creed a tax was exacted according to three grades.”
At Askalanda after its fall: “ Muhammad bin Quasim went into the fort, killed four thousand fighting men with his bloody sword and sent their families into slavery.”
In Multan: “six thousand warriors were put to death, and all their relations and dependents were taken as slaves”
In his Futuhul-Buldan, Al Biladuri (892-893) wrote another account of the Arab conquest of Sindh: “We are told that Hajjaj caused a calculation to be made of the sums expanded in fitting out his expedition of Muhammad bin Quasim, and the riches which resulted from it. He had spent 60 million dirhams and that which had been sent to him (by MBQ) amounted to 120 million dirhams.”
This 120 million dirhams represents only one-fifth of the total loot which was paid to into the Caliph’s coffers according to a rule laid down by prophet Muhammad. Another four hundred and eighty million dirhams were distributed among Muslim soldiers in the field. Again this total of 600 million dirhams does not include the sale proceeds of nearly two hundred thousand Hindu men, women and children who were taken prisoners and put to auction all over the world of Islam at that time.
Turkish Invasion (Bakhtiar Khalzi: 1204)
1004 AD Mahmud Ghaznabi stormed Bhatiya and plundered the place. He stayed
there for some time to convert the Hindus to Islam with the help of the mullahs
he had brought with him. In 1008 AD he captured Nagarkot (Kangara). The
loot amounted to 70,000,000 dirhams and 700,400 mans (apprx 36
kilos=1 man) of gold and silver, besides plenty of
precious gems and embroidered clothes. In 1011 AD Mahmud plundered
Thanesar which was undefended, destroyed many temples, and smashed a large
number of idols. The chief idol, that of Chakraswami, was taken to Ghazni
and thrown into the public square for defilement under the feet of the
faithful. Reports Utbi (Mahmud’s secretary) in his Tarikh-i-Yamini: “
The blood of the infidels flowed so copiously (at Thanesar) that the
stream was discolored, not withstanding its purity, and people were unable
to drink it. The Sultan (Mahmud) returned with plunder which is impossible
to count. Praise be to Allah for the honor he bestows on Islam and Muslims”.
1013 AD Mahmud advanced against Nandana where the Shahiya king, Anandapal,
had established his new capital. The Hindus fought very hard but lost.
Again the temples were destroyed, and innocent citizens slaughtered. Utbi
continues: “The Sultan returned in the rear of
immense booty, and slaves were so plentiful that they became very cheap
and men of respectability in their native land were degraded by becoming
slaves of common shop-keepers. But this is the goodness of Allah, who
bestows honor on his own religion and degrades infidelity”.
December 1018 AD Mahmud crossed the Jamuna, collected 1,000,000 dirhams
from Baran (Bulandshahar), and marched to Mahaban in Maratha district.
Utbi records: “ The infidels ....deserted the
fort and tried to cross the foaming river...but many of them were slain,
taken or drowned....nearly 50,000 men were killed”.
was the next victim. Mahmud seized five gold idols weighing 89,000 miskals
and 200 silver idols. According to Utbi, “ The
Sultan gave orders that all the temples should be burnt with naptha and
fire, and levelled with the ground”. The pillage of the city
continued for 20 days.
then turned to Kanauj. Utbi continues: “In
Kanauj there were nearly 3,000 temples...Many of the inhabitants of the
place fled in consequence of witnessing the fate of their deaf and dumb
idols. Those who did not fly were put to death” The Brahmins of Munj,
which was attacked next, fought to the last man after throwing their wives
and children into fire. The fate of Asi
was sealed when its ruler took off. Utbi goes: “ the
sultan ordered that his five forts should be demolished from their
foundations, the inhabitants buried in their ruins, and the soldiers of
the garrison plundered, slain and captured”.
next important place to fall under Mahmud’s sword, met the same fate.
Utbi concludes: “The Muslims paid no regards to
the booty till they had satiated themselves with the slaughter of the
infidels and worshippers of sun and fire. The friends of Allah searched
the bodies of the slain for three days in order to obtain booty...The
booty amounted in gold and silver, rubies and pearls nearly to three
hundred thousand dirhams, and
the number of prisoners may be conceived from the fact that each was sold
for two to ten dirhams. These were afterwards taken to Ghazni and
merchants came from distant cities to purchase them, so that the countries
of Mawaraun-Nahr, Iraq and Khurasan were filled with them, and the fair
and the dark, the rich and the poor, were commingled in common slavery”.
1192 AD Muhammad Ghuri captured Ajmer by defeating Prithibiraj Chauhan.
According to Hasan Nizami’s Taj-ul-Masir: “While
the Sultan remained at Ajmer, he destroyed the pillars and foundations of
the idol temples and built in their stead mosques and colleges and
precepts of Islam, and the customs of the law were divulged and
year Muhammad Ghuri defeated Joy Chandra of Kanauj. A general massacre,
rapine and pillage followed. The Gahadbad treasuries at Asni and Baranasi
were plundered. According to Kamil-ul-Tawarikh of Ibn Asir, “The
salughter of Hindus (at Baranasi) was immense; none were spared except
women and children, and the carnage of men went on until the earth was
weary.” The women and children were spared so that they could be sold as
slaves. The Buddhist complex at Sarnath was sacked at this time, and the
Bhikkus were slaughtered".
lieutenant Qutubuddin Aibak was a real match of him. In 1193 AD Aibak
suppressed a Hindu revolt at Kol (Ajmer) so ruthlessly that Nizami writes
of him he raised: “three bastions as high as
heaven with their heads, and their carcasses became food for beasts of
prey. The tract was freed from idols and idol worship and the foundations
of heathenism were destroyed”.
1166 AD Aibak advanced against Anahilwar Patan, the capital of Gujrat.
Nizami writes that after Raja Karan was defeated and forced to flee, “50,000
infidels were despatched to hell by the sword” and “more than 20,000
slaves, and cattle beyond all calculation fell into the hands of the
his return to Ajmer, Aibak destroyed the Sanskrit college of Bisaldeb, and
laid the foundation of a mosque which came to be known as Adhai Din Ka
of Kalinjar in 1202 AD was Aibak’s crowning achievement. Nizami
concludes: “The temples were converted into
mosques... Fifty thousand men came under the collar of slavery and the
plain became black as pitch with Hindus”.
free lance adventurer Bakhtiar Khalji sacked he undefended university town
of Odantpuri in Bihar and massacred the Buddhist monks in the monasteries.
In 1202 he took Nadiya by surprise. Badauni records in his Muntakhab-ut-Tawarikh
that “ property and booty beyond computation
fell into the hands of the Muslims and Muhammad Bakhtyar having destroyed
the places of worship and idol temples of the infidels founded mosques and
Bangla under the Pathans
|Bangla as British Colony(1757-1947)|
|Soldiers' Rebellion (1857)|
|Revolutionary Terrorism Against British Imperialism (Aurobindo Ghose)|
|Indian Nationalist Army|
|Azad Hind Force (Subhash Chandra Bosu)|
|Indian Republican Army (Surya Sen)|
|Famine in Bangla|
|15 August 1947: independence (Partition) of India|
|East Bangla as Pakistani Colony (1947-70)|
|Bangla Language Movement: 21 February 1952|
Hindu Massacre in East Pakistan: 1964
of Hindus in 1964: Planned elimination of Bangalee capitalists and
destruction of Banglalee Industries
The Bangalee Hindu massacre in 1964 was staged by the Pakistani industrialists such as Adamji, Ishpahani and Bawani groups to destroy the rival Bangalee (Hindu) owned cotton industries that dominated the textile market of Pakistan and root out the rise of Bangalee capitalism. Settler Biharis and the Muhjirs joined the Paki capitalists to destroy the leading industry of East Pakistan: The cotton industries of Narayanganj
Mr. Karim, the GM of Adamji Jute Mills at Sumilpara in Narayanganj told
the people his brother had been killed in Kolkata and declared a paid
holiday to the workers on January 13 and 14, 1964. About 30/40,000
workers, mostly Bihari and Noakhali Muslims work in the Adamji Jute Mills.
They were supplied with weapons of various types to commit violence upon
the minority community. In the name of Allah, they started Jihad at the
zero hour of 13/14 January and fell upon the neighboring villages
inhabited mostly by Hindu workers who worked in Dhakeswari Cotton Mills,
Adarsha Cotton Mills, Chittaranjan Cotton Mills and Lakshinarayan Cotton
Mills. The Hindu Bangalee industrialists owned those mills.
the firs two hours the Hindu workers defended themselves against the
attack of the armed Muslim workers from the Adamji Jute Mills. Later
thousands of Muslim workers from nearby Muslim textile mills (Demra Bawany
Jute Mills, Karim jute mills, Shermin textile mills) joined their brethren
at arms to assault the Hindu workers. The combined army of Muslim workers
set fire to the Hindu villages and ruthlessly slew the Hindus
indiscriminately. After killing the Hindu workers sheltered in those Hindu
Bangalee owned cotton mills the Mujahids then marched towards Madhabdi
Bazaar and on their way they reached a village named Golakandyl where
thousands of Hindus had assembled in a fair to celebrate a Bengali
festival (Paus Sankranti). In the morning of 14 January 1964, the zealous
Mujahids started a killing spree. 5-6 thousands Hindus were killed in that
festival, women were raped in broad day light, fetus were brought of the
wombs of pregnant Hindu women, babies and children were beheaded. Then the
frenzied mob reached Baburhat, also known as the Manchester of Bangla,
looted and then burned it to ashes.
Muslim owner of Momit Motor Co provided free transport to the Muslim
rioters to mobilize their attack on the Hindus in various villages of the
locality. Where there were no roads they used the vehicles of the Inland
Water Transport Authority of the East Pakistan Government. The armed
members of EPR (now BDR) and Ansar (a para militia force) not only
encouraged and rendered assistance to these Mujahids, but they also
actively participated in the massacre of the Hindus.
Dhaka city, two Hindus were (Pitambar Shaha and Biru Pal) were burnt dead
in Nawabpur. Famous Das studio on Nawabpur road was looted and burnt. Some
dead bodies were found in nearby well. Arson, loot and rampage went on and
on without any initiative from the Pakistani government to stop it. Mr.
Amir Hossain Chowdhury, a Muslim poet died in his attempt to protect the
Hindus against the rioters. Few others came out to do their best to stop
violence: Zahirul Huq, Abdur Rahim, and Ali Ahad. On 14 January 1964, Prof
Richard Novak of Notredame College went to Naryanganj to take photographs
of Hindu massacre. The Muslim rioters stabbed him to death in Lakhadgola
neat Adarsa cotton mills and threw his dead body into the river. 25 camps
were opened in Dhaka to provide shelter to the assaulted Hindu Bangalees
of which the largest one, opened in Jagannath College, sheltered more than
10,000 Hindus. Even the legendary hero of the anti-British movement, Sri
Trailakya Nath Chakraborty, had to take shelter in that camp for ten days.
Prof Saidur Rahman, principal of Jagannath College was the key figure in
providing shelter to the affected Hindu Bangalees.
17 January 1964, two Awami League leaders Sheikh Mujib and Shah Azizur
Rahman, threatened the Paki Chief Secretary, Ali Asghahr that if he did
not take strong measures to stop Hindu massacre, the Muhammadpur Bihari
Colony would be demolished and burnt. The student community backed the
threat of Sheikh Mujib and Ali Ashghar was aware of the effect of such a
threat. The attack against the Bangalee Hindus was stopped. But the
Governor, creepy Monaim Khan countered Sheikh Mujib’s threat by bringing
the province under Central Administration,
the Muslim rioters ruthlessly killed the Hindu workers and villagers, the
prominent Hindu leaders and professionals were arrested and harassed by
the government. Sri Monoranjan Dhar, an advocate of Dhaka High Court,
ex-Finance Minister of East Pakistan and the GS of Pakistan National
Congress was arrested. Sri Pulin De, a former member of the East Pakistan
Legislature, an academic by profession and the Secretary of Pakistan
Socialist Party was also arrested…….”
Mass Movement of 1969
Election of 1970
7 March 1971: Mujib's call for the preparation of independence war
25 March 1971: Bangalee Massacre by Pakistani Occupation Army
Declaration of Independence: 26 March 1971
Liberation War against Pakistani Colonists
Independence of Bangladesh: Victory of Secularism
Islamist Coup against Secular Civil Governance: 15 August 1975
Ordinance, 1975 - Bangladesh
NOTIFICATION Dhaka, the 26 September, 1975
THE INDEMNITY ORDINANCE, 1975
(1) of article 93 of the Constitution of the People's
Republic of Bangladesh, the president is pleased to make and promulgate
the following Ordinance:- Short title. This Ordinance may be called the
Indemnity Ordinance, 1975.Restrictions on the taking of any legal to other
proceedings against persons in respect of certain acts
(a) Notwithstanding anything contained in any law,
including a law relating to any defence service, for the time being in
force, no suit, prosecution or other proceedings, legal or disciplinary,
shall lie, or be taken, in before or by any Court, including the Supreme
Court and court Martial, or other authority against any person including a
person who is or has, at any time, been subject to any law relating to any
defence service, for on account of or in respect of any act, matter or
thing done or step taken by such person in connection with, or in
(b) For the purposes, of this section, a certificate by the
president, or a person authorised by him in this behalf that any act,
matter or thing was done or step taken by any person mentioned in the
certificate in connection. With, of in preparation or execution of any
plan for, or necessary step towards, the change of Government of the
People's Republic of Bangladesh and the proclamation of Martial Law on
morning of the 15th
KHANDAKER MOSHTAQUE AHMED
Counter Coup: 3 November 1975
Murder of Key Leaders of Independence: 3 November 1975
At 3 a.m. in the morning on 3 November 1975, I received a call from the Bangabhaban (president’s office) by one Major Rashid asking me if there was any problem in the central jail. I said 'I don't know what’s going on right now?' Then he
told me that few members of the army might go to the jail gate to forcibly pick up some
prisoners so that I can alert the jail guards. Accordingly I phoned the warder on duty at the central jail and told him to pass the message to jailer so that he can
alert the security.
I wanted to talk to the president and the phone was handed over to him. Before I uttered a single word, the president (Mostak) asked me if I did understand Major Rashid’s message clearly. I said yes and he (Mostak) ordered me to carry out his (Major Rashid) instructions. Within a few minutes Captain Moslem arrived at the jail gate with 4 troops, all in black uniform (Armoured core
uniform). On entering the office of DIG prison he asked us to take them
straight to the cell where the above mentioned prisoners are detained. I told him that as per the instruction of Bangabhaban he
was supposed to have a message for me. He replied he would shoot them. We were all stunned at his comment. Both DIG prison and me tried to contact the president but failed. While we were trying to contact the president for verification Major Rashid called again on the jailer’s phone. When I took the phone major Rashid wanted to know whether captain Moslem
has already been there. I said yes but added ‘ I don’t understand what’s going on?’ Major Rashid then told me to talk to the president and handed him the phone. I told the president that the troops wanted to kill the prisoners. The president ordered me to follow them.
President's express order bewildered all of us. Captain Moslem and his troops then pointed their guns to us,
DIG prison, jailer, me and other prison officers, and ordered us to take them to the above mentioned prisoners. The troops were behaving frantically and we did not dare oppose their
orders. As per their orders the four above mentioned prisoners were taken from their respective cells and put into a separate cell where the jailer identified them. As soon as the jailer finished identification, captain Moslem and his troops shot them dead. Later, led by Naik A Ali, another band of troops
stormed the jail to confirm the execution. They went straight to the death
cell and bayoneted
the dead bodies of the key four leaders of our Liberation War."
Zaman, Inspector General, Dhaka Central Jail
Ahmed in 1971 while leading Liberation War
"....... I had to bury a huge pain in the hearts of my heart. Mujib bhai who was embedded in my mind forever, Mujib bhai who over the years became part of my being, that Mujib bhai never asked me, even for a day, Tajuddin what did you do in 71 when I was away. Never asked Tajuddin, you tell me, I'd like to hear about 71....."
My Childhood in 1971 and my dad Tajuddin Ahmed: Shimin Hussain Rimi
“Lilie, said Tajuddin I never made a wrong decision in my whole life. But the deadliest mistake of my life was not leaving home in the fatal night of 15 August.”
Islamists Strike Back: 07 November 1975
of Zia’s (anti-liberation bloc) counter-revolution
Arrested Army Officers
Imprisoned Air Force Officers
1. Commander Abdur Rouf
2. Lt Commander Nizami
3. Lt Hassan
Assassinated Crews of BTV (Dhaka)
1. Manirul Islam:Program Director
2. AFM Siddique:Administrative Officer
3. Akmal Hossain: Chief Accountant
4. Feroz Chowdhury: Cameraman
Assassinated members of the Parliament and political leaders:
1. Mustafizur Rahman (Patal), MP from Bogra
2. Abdul Hakim Howladar: MP from Barisal and Trade Union Leader
3. Kazi Hedayet: ex-MCA, Joint Secretary of BAKSAL, Rajbari
4. Anwar Hossain-ex-student leader from Barisal
5. Dr Khagendra Nath Biswas, Chairman, Union Council, Madaripur
1. Khondokar Mohd Ilias: GS Afro-Asian Writer’s Union
2. Dr Mazharul Islam: VC, Rajshahi University
3. Golam Mohd Idu: Journalist/singer
4. Mohd Shahabuddin: Teacher
5. Kashishwar Dey: novelist
(Source: Jyoti Sen Gupta :Bangladesh in Blood and Tears)
|Military Dictatorship (General Zia)|
|Restoration of Parliamentary Democracy (Fall of Genreal Ershad)|
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